LA COPA DE BENITO MUSSOLINI: ITALIA 1934

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Sin lugar a dudas, el Mundial de 1930 fue un evento que cambió la forma de ver el fútbol a todos los aficionados. El comienzo de esta precoz globalización futbolera tuvo un comienzo difícil. Uruguay fue escogido como sede para la primera edición, debido a la celebración del centenario de la Jura de su Constitución. Muchas selecciones no llegaron a entender cómo el país sudamericano había sido nombrado organizador. Por este motivo, la primera edición del Mundial estuvo marcada por el boicot. Muchas selecciones europeas no participaron, aludiendo diversos argumentos.
 
Cuatro años después la FIFA llevó al viejo continente la segunda edición del Mundial de Fútbol. Uruguay, Campeón del Mundo, decide no asistir como represalia al boicot que había sufrido, convirtiéndose así en el único campeón que no defendió su título. El país elegido para ser sede fue la Italia de Benito Mussolini. Y es conveniente ahondar un poco en el escenario político de esa época, ya que en los más de 100 años que tiene este hermoso deporte, la política y el fútbol siempre fueron de la mano.
 
BenitoAmilcare Andrea Mussolini, dictador desde 1922, trabajó mucho para lograr que el Mundial se dispute en su país. Primero consiguió que Suecia retirara su candidatura y con el apoyo de la Alemania de Adolf Hitler; la FIFA se decantó por Italia para organizar el Mundial de 1934. La década de 1930 constituye uno de los puntos de inflexión fundamentales de la historia de Europa. En ella encontramos simultáneamente la crisis del liberalismo y la democracia, el ascenso del fascismo, la irrupción de las masas y la expansión del Estado. Entre un viejo orden agonizante golpeado por la Primera Guerra Mundial y la Revolución Rusa, y uno nuevo que aún no se había afirmado, los años de la depresión fueron también los de un período de revisión y búsqueda de nuevas bases sobre las cuales refundar el régimen político, el orden económico, la vida social y el sistema internacional. En este contexto  “explosivo” el fútbol luchaba por expandirse y masificarse.
 
Bajo la permanente supervisión del Duce Mussolini, la Asociación Italiana de Fútbol  logró la inscripción de 32 equipos para disputar el torneo, de los cuales 16 quedaron clasificados para la ronda final, incluso el país organizador debió disputar la clasificación jugada a principios de 1934. Como para asegurarse que todo estuviese en orden, en una conversación con Giorgio Vaccaro, presidente de la Federación Italiana de Fútbol y miembro del Comité Olímpico Italiano, Mussolini le “sugirió” lo siguiente:
 
BM: «No sé cómo hará, pero Italia debe ganar este campeonato».
GV: «Haremos todo lo posible…».
BM: «No me ha comprendido bien, general… Italia debe ganar este Mundial. Es una orden».
 
En la ronda final del mundial sólo participaron tres países americanos: Brasil, Argentina y Estados Unidos. Egipto, por su parte, se convirtió en el primer país africano en jugar un Mundial. Por Europa estuvieron Hungría, Austria, Bélgica, Holanda, Rumania, Checoslovaquia, España, Suiza, Francia, Suecia, Alemania y el país anfitrión, Italia. “Europa para los europeos”, Italia ´34 fue un torneo de europeos, por europeos y para europeos, aunque de gran nivel futbolístico.
 
El origen de los nacionalizados
 
Probablemente, la incorporación de cuatro argentinos nacionalizados italianos a la selección “Azzurra” sea el primer caso del que se tenga registro, por lo menos en competencias oficiales. Años después la FIFA reglamentaría esta condición que desde hace algunos años es muy común. Los compatriotas y precursores que ostentaron esa condición fueron: Luis Felipe Monti (Huracán, Boca, San Lorenzo y Juventus), Raimundo Orsi (Independiente y Juventus entre otros), Attilio Demaría (Gimnasia LP, Inter de Milán, Independiente) y Enrique Guaita (Estudiante de La Plata, Racing y la Roma).
 
 
Grandes Equipos
 
Selección de Austria
Aunque quedó eliminado en una polémica semifinal frente a los locales, Austria fue la sensación del Mundial y el que desplegó el mejor juego, según todas las crónicas de la época. Dirigidos por Hugo Meisl, artífice de este equipo, maravilló a todos por su soberbia compenetración con una suavidad de toque y una maestría en el dominio del balón a lo que agregaban una serenidad y seguridad pasmosas.
Mathías Sindelar fue el líder de esta gran selección.
 
España 1934
España había logrado clasificar a la ronda final tras dejar en el camino a Portugal, en eliminatoria directa disputada en marzo de 1934. Jugadores de la talla del “Divino” Zamora, arquero del Real Madrid, ya lo había sido del Barcelona; Isidro Lángara, sensacional delantero del Oviedo y San Lorenzo de Almagro; José Irarágorri del Athletic de Bilbao y que también jugó en Argentina por San Lorenzo, fueron algunos de los principales referentes de esa selección. Equipo con garra y de juego punzante  fue eliminado en cuartos por Italia. Florencia fue escenario de una auténtica batalla entre españoles e italianos que finalizó en empate a uno. Al día siguiente, en el choque de desempate, España pagó el esfuerzo y un gol de Giuseppe Meazza daba a Italia el pasaje para las semifinales
 
Italia con cinco incorporaciones de oriundos como Guaita, Orsi, Monti, Demaría todos argentinos y Guarisi brasileño, reclutados a través del plan del Duce, contaba con una gran formación dirigida por un técnico, Vittorio Pozzo, que tenía muy claro lo que se jugaba y como lo tenía que hacer para cumplir las expectativas del dictador. Vittorio abogaba por una táctica sencilla y eminentemente resultadista, basada en una corta posesión del balón, el pase largo y el fútbol directo y ofensivo. El mero hecho de repasar la línea ofensiva de cinco bastaba para comprobar el estilo de aquella selección: Guaita, Meazza, Schiavio, Ferrari y Orsi.
 
Argentina y Brasil
 
Tanto Brasil como Argentina, si bien viajaron al Mundial, no lo hicieron con sus mejores jugadores, como forma de protesta por el boicot al Mundial organizado por Uruguay. Nuestra selección formó con jugadores amateurs y el único amistoso que realizaron previo al certamen fue ante la tripulación del transatlántico que los llevó al viejo continente. Brasil también llevó un “rejunte” salvo Leónidas y Patesko, enormes jugadores pero que poco pudieron hacer. Brasil cayó en octavos frente a España (3 – 1), al igual que Argentina ante Suecia (3 – 2).
 
Talento y Gol
 
Oldřich Nejedlý
Oldřich Nejedlý fue el goleador del Campeonato Mundial con cinco tantos, pero esto recién fue oficializado en 2006, ya que originalmente la FIFA le había adjudicado cuatro (por lo que compartía el trofeo con Edmund Conen de Alemania y Angelo Schiavio de Italia). Los reiterados reclamos de Checoeslovaquia primero y República Checa después, a lo largo de 72 años, lograron que la máxima autoridad del fútbol mundial investigara y reconociera el quinto tanto que lo dejó como único goleador. Nejedlý se destacó por su gran oportunismo para el gol, lo que unido a su exquisita técnica y a su gran disposición física, inusual en la época, hicieron de él una joya para su selección.
 
 
 
 
 
El escándalo del Mundial
 
Los arbitrajes de los dos partidos que necesitó Italia para eliminar a España, en cuartos de final, fueron uno de los mayores escándalos de la historia de los Mundiales. En el primero, disputado en Florencia el 31 de mayo, el belga Louis Baert no sólo fue demasiado contemplativo con Luis Monti sino que convalidó el gol del empate conseguido por Ferrari, tras una carga alevosa de Schiavio sobre el arquero Zamora. En el desempate jugado un día después en el mismo estadio, el árbitro suizo Mercet otra vez fue protagonista. España, perdiendo y diezmada, consiguió un gol que fue anulado por el juez. El partido finalizó 1 a 0. Dos meses más tarde la Federación Suiza de Fútbol proscribió de por vida a Mercet por acciones antideportivas.
 
La final
 
Italia y Checoslovaquia disputaron el último partido del Mundial, en el “Stadio Nazionale PNF Roma” y ante 50 mil espectadores, el local debió esforzarse al máximo para derrotar a su rival en la final del 10 de junio. Desde el palco, el poderoso aparato de gobierno, encabezado por Mussolini, se aprestó a ver un partido en el que se descontaba una victoria local. En el césped, el 0 a 0 de la etapa inicial comenzó a transmitir preocupación al técnico Victorio Pozzo. Frantisek Planicka, arquero checo, justificó su fama cortando una y otra vez los intentos de la ofensiva local. Para peor, a los 15 minutos del segundo tiempo, Roma enmudeció: sobre la izquierda y desde un ángulo muy cerrado, el puntero Vladimir Puc puso en ventaja a su equipo. Tres minutos después Svoboda estrelló un tiro en el travesaño. Pozzo decidió correr entonces a Schiavio y colocó a Guaita en el centro del ataque. La jugada dio resultado. Con el empate conseguido por Orsi, Italia aquietó lo que parecía un desastre inevitable. Llegó el tiempo suplementario y un interrogante de difícil respuesta se les presentó a los locales: ¿Podrían los jugadores sobreponerse al hecho de haber disputado el doble de minutos que su rival? Claro que lo lograron y eso que encima se lesionó el astro Giuseppe Meazza. Una gran jugada entre Guaita y Schiavio finalizó con un potente remate de este último que venció al inmenso Planicka.
 
Comenzaba así el duelo intercontinental por obtener la supremacía en el deporte más popular del planeta, pero era apenas el comienzo. En tanto Jules Rimet y sus colaboradores de la FIFA se mostraron encantados. No era para menos, el balón continuaba picando y ya apuntaba al Mundial de Francia.
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About Author

56 años, escritor. El fútbol y el rugby, mis pasiones. San Lorenzo de Almagro un sentimiento. Escribir sobre fútbol y sus protagonistas, un oficio que intento aprender día a día.

81 comentarios

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