EL MARACANAZO: BRASIL 1950

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Brasil en 1950 fue el cuarto mundial, y el primero realizado luego del “parate” que hubo por la Segunda Guerra Mundial. La sede original iba a ser Alemania en 1942, cuatro años más tarde que el Mundial anterior, como estaba previsto, pero la invasión del país germano a Polonia en 1939 y la explosión del conflicto bélico le obligaron a la FIFA a postergar los campeonatos. Las autoridades del máximo organismo de fútbol mundial realizaron el primer congreso, luego de finalizada la Guerra, el 25 de julio de 1946 en Luxemburgo para retomar el camino empezado en Uruguay 1930. Barajaron la posibilidad de que Suiza fuera la sede del cuarto campeonato del mundo que iba a disputarse en 1949, pero hubo dos factores por los que el Mundial no se realizó en el país helvético: Europa estaba golpeada por la Guerra y los países sudamericanos, encabezados por Argentina y Brasil, se opusieron porque los dos últimos Mundiales se habían disputado en Europa (Italia 1934 y Francia 1938). Argentina apoyó la candidatura de Brasil y, al ser aceptada como sede del próximo Campeonato del Mundo, pidió un año de prórroga para acondicionar sus estadios y construir el Estadio Mario Filho, más conocido como el Maracaná.

Los equipos participantes fueron 13, ya que por distintos motivos muchos no participaron de la fase clasificatoria o renunciaron a participar del Mundial. Uno de los casos más llamativos es el de India: su Selección ya estaba clasificada para disputar el torneo, pero se negaron a participar porque sus jugadores no podían jugar descalzos. Por parte del continente europeo, muchos de sus países estaban golpeados por la Guerra y algunos ni se inscribieron para participar de la clasificatoria; solamente participaron Italia (último campeón), Inglaterra(primera participación en un Mundial), Suiza, Suecia, Yugoslavia y España, mientras que Portugal y Francia, eliminadas en la etapa de clasificación, fueron invitadas a participar pero se negaron. Por su parte, FIFA le negó la participación a Alemania por ser el país que desató uno de los conflictos bélicos más grandes de la historia.

Ya con los 16 clasificados establecidos, se sortearon las zonas de cuatro selecciones cada una. Sin embargo, antes de que comenzara la competencia, tres selecciones (Escocia, Turquía e India) decidieron abandonar el torneo y la FIFA no volvió a sortear las zonas, sino que los grupos se mantuvieron iguales a como estaban antes, pero con algunos competidores menos. ¿Se trató de una medida injusta? Sí, porque al clasificar un solo equipo de cada grupo, Uruguay podía clasificar jugando un solo partido mientras que cualquier Selección de las primeras dos zonas debía disputar 3 partidos. Las zonas quedaron conformadas de la siguiente manera:

ZONA 1: Brasil, Yugoslavia, Suiza y México.
ZONA 2: España, Inglaterra, Chile y Estados Unidos.
ZONA 3: Suecia, Italia y Paraguay.
ZONA 4: Uruguay y Bolivia.

Los ganadores de cada una fueron Brasil, España, Suecia y Uruguay. Para definir al campeón, se disputó un cuadrangular en el que por pura casualidad el último partido fue el definitorio. Brasil le ganó 6-1 a España y 7-1 a Suecia, mientras que Uruguay empató 2-2 con España y venció 3-2 a Suecia. Si los resultados hubieran sido otros, el partido entre Brasil y Uruguay no hubiese tenido la trascendencia que tuvo.
La final
Brasilvenía de un 1949 excelente, fue campeón de la Copa América y de la Copa Branco. En la Copa del Mundo había empatado con Suiza, pero les había ganado por amplia ventaja a España y a Suecia en la fase final. Uruguay le ganó a Bolivia en la zona 4 y no se había destacado en la fase final. El empate favorecía al conjunto local, que colmó el Maracaná para el último partido frente a los charrúas.

uruguay-50
La Selección uruguaya campeona del mundo.
Un dirigente uruguayo, antes del partido, les pidió a los jugadores celestes que con perder por 4 goles él se iría satisfecho, a lo que Obdulio Varela reacciona y antes de salir al campo de juego reúne a todos los jugadores y les dice “Los de afuera son de palo. Cumplidos solamente si somos campeones”. “Los de afuera son de palo” es una de las frases más recordadas por el contexto en el que se disputaba el partido: el Maracaná estaba lleno, con récord de venta de entradas (175.000 tickets vendidos), aunque algunas fuentes de la época afirman que había por lo menos 200.000 espectadores en el estadio.

El marcador lo abrió Albino Friaça Cardoso a los dos minutos del complemento y el Maracaná explotaba de felicidad. Pero sin embargo, con más amor propio que juego, los orientales dieron vuelta el resultado con goles de Juan Schiaffino a los 66 minutos y de Alcides Ghiggiaa los 79, y generaron el silencio de las 200.000 almas que presenciaron el partido desde las tribunas y de todo el país que estaba pendiente de este partido. Durante los minutos finales, el seleccionado local buscaba igualar el partido para así festejar el título, pero la firmeza uruguaya en defensa fue más fuerte. Los minutos seguían pasando, pero no podían vulnerar el arco defendido por Roque Máspoli hasta que George Reader, árbitro del encuentro, decretó el final. “El único sonido que se escuchaba en las tribunas era el de las lágrimas cayendo contra el suelo” (Historias insólitas de los mundiales de Fútbol, Luciano Wernicke). Esta fue la primera sorpresa dada en una final, la bautizaron como “El Maracanazo”.
Curiosidades
  • Brasil usó camisetas blancas desde 1919. Luego del “Maracanazo” empezaron a usar camisetas con los colores de la bandera, la conocida “verdeamarelha”.
  • La Selección de Italia fue la única que se trasladó a Brasil en barco. ¿Por qué? El 4 de marzo de 1949 se accidentaron 10 de los 11 titulares cuando el Torino(base de la Selección) retornaba de jugar un partido amistoso en Portugalfrente al Benfica. El avión, por causa de la poca visibilidad, se estrelló contra la Basílica de Superga. Por lo tanto, el entrenador de Italia debió armar un equipo prácticamente de cero. Por haberse transportado en barco, los jugadores llegaron a Sudamérica mal entrenados y fuera de forma, por lo que quedaron eliminados en primera ronda y fue la primera selección que defendía el título que quedó eliminada en la fase de grupos.
  • Aparecieron los números en las camisetas.
  • Los entrenadores podían estar acompañados por un médico y un masajista.
  • Se representaron los himnos solamente en el cuadrangular final.
Ghigggia
Homenaje a Alcides Ghiggia por el Maracanaz
  • Moacir Barbosa, arquero de la Selección de Brasil durante el Mundial, pasó de ser un ídolo en su país a ser una persona no grata luego del Maracanazo. En 1993 tuvo la intención de visitar al plantel que disputaría el Mundial de Estados Unidos 1994, pero no pudo porque un directivo de la Confederación Brasileña de Fútbol ordenó que no lo dejaran pasar: “Llévense lejos a este hombre, que sólo trae mala suerte”. Hasta el día de su muerte, Barbosa repitió que “la pena más alta en mi país por cometer un crimen es de 30 años- Hace 50 que yo pago por un delito que no cometí”.
Distinciones
Bota de Oro: Ademir (Brasil), Estanislao Basora (España), Oscar Miguez (Uruguay).
Goleadores:Ademir (8, Brasil), Oscar Miguez (5, Uruguay), Alcides Ghiggia (4, Uruguay).

Escrito por: Andrés Yacoubian
(@AndiYaco)

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